Welcome to Preetech3
Few day ago I visit some site to get information about technology. Among them I got three blog with full of content and information. You may visit to get technology information or build backlink for your site.

1.Technology Bangladesh.

2. Avow Zone.

3. Preetech.

Active compounds in green tea may slow down the progression of prostate cancer, researchers reported recently.

Capsules made using green tea extracts called polyphenols lowered levels of proteins that tumors use to grow, the researchers found.

Made by Polyphenon Pharma, the capsules called Polyphenon E contain epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG, a green tea extract that has antioxidant properties.

Jim Cardelli of Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport and colleagues tested 26 prostate cancer patients, aged from 41 to 68.

Each took four Polyphenon E capsules a day — equivalent to drinking 12 cups of green tea — for about a month before they had their prostates removed.

Blood tests showed levels of three proteins associated with the growth and spread of prostate cancer fell. Hepatocyte growth factor or HGF fell 18.9 percent on average, vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF fell by 9.9 percent and prostate specific antigen PSA fell by 10.4 percent, they reported in the journal Cancer Prevention Research.

The test in 26 prostate cancer patients was a small trial and bigger studies would be needed to confirm the results.
Under-nutrition and malnutrition in pregnancy period are the major problems in Bangladesh that threaten the health of both mother and their babies. Maintaining proper nutrition during pregnancy is specially considered to be of importance for the high prevalence of low birth weight, fetal growth retardation and perinatal death (death around birth period). Experts identified limited access to high quality foods, traditional food habits, food taboos and limited knowledge as the factors contribute to under-nutrition.

Certain significant research works show that a healthy protein rich diet packed with essential nutrients like calcium, magnesium, iron, folic acid, vitamin D etc. can prevent many pregnancy complications and enhance the growth of baby.

Many pregnant women are deficient in important nutrients. Iron is one of such commonest nutrient lacking in expecting mothers. Iron deficiency lead to anaemia (lack of haemoglobin in blood) which is a risk factor for pre-term delivery, subsequent low birth weight baby pushing mother and babies prone to various infections.

The recommended requirement is 30 mg of iron daily which is not usually met by diet alone during pregnancy. So, oral iron tablet is commonly recommended. It should be taken on an empty stomach. When more than 30 mg of iron is given to treat anaemia, it is suggested to also take approximately 15 mg of zinc and 2 mg of copper, since iron interferes with absorption and utilisation of these materials.

According to some studies, caffeine decreases the availability of certain nutrients, such as calcium, zinc and iron. Current recommendations, therefore, include limiting the consumption of caffeinated products.

Calcium is another important nutrient — not only for bone health, but also for the prevention of major pregnancy complications. Studies suggested that calcium may help dilate and relax blood vessels and play effective role in preventing pregnancy induced hypertension. It cuts the risk of severe pregnancy complications like pre-eclampsia. More importantly, calcium is the main component of growing baby’s tiny bones. The recommended level of calcium for pregnant women is 1,200 mg daily. For some women, it is difficult to reach this level by diet alone; therefore calcium supplements may be needed. Calcium supplements, if recommended, should be taken with meals.

Additionally, vitamin D may be necessary if sunlight exposure is minimal.

For vegetarians, the current recommendations also include a daily supplement of 2 mg of Vitamin B 12.

Folic acid, another vital nutrient helps prevent neural tube defects (serious abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord) of the baby. Lack of folic acid increases the risk of pre-term delivery, low birth weight and poor fetal growth. Folic acid is supplied with diet and oral tablet supplement.

Caloric requirements during pregnancy have been estimated to be around an additional 300 calories per day. Recommendations regarding sugar intake for pregnant women depend on weight gain and maternal blood glucose levels. A high sugar intake would not be advisable for women gaining more than the recommended weight or for those women who are having difficulty controlling normal blood glucose levels. High sugar intake in these women may result in increased maternal risk for complications associated with too much weight gain, diabetes, hypertension, premature delivery and a large baby.

For women who do not ordinarily consume an adequate diet or for those in high-risk categories (such as those carrying twins, heavy smokers and drug abusers) a prenatal vitamin supplement is recommended, beginning in the second trimester.

Tips for common pregnancy discomforts include avoidance of offending, spicy and fatty foods when nausea and heartburn occur. Frequent, small and blander meals are often better tolerated.

When constipation is a concern, increased consumption of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is advisable, as well as increased fluid intake and physical activity.

The above mentioned information is just for the awareness of pregnant woman or couples planning for pregnancy shortly. Proper antenatal care is a must during pregnancy. Any drug should be administered consulting a registered physician to assess the overall health status of pregnant women.
Dry hands, arid skin, desiccated hair, more asthma and heart attacks, cold and flu- are the woes of winter. Living well in this wintertime needs extra caution as the cold weather ushers annoying health issues. To help combat the pesky wintertime problems, here are some tips and advice on how to keep your body in fit throughout the winter months.

Proper clothing
When outside for an extended period of time, it is important to find the right, and correct, amount of clothing to wear. Again, wear too much and you can sweat too much increasing susceptibility to hypothermia. The clothes that will release heat are ideal. Because if you start to sweat, that can decrease your heat as water is a gateway to lose heat. Also, if your clothes get wet, you can get yourself into trouble. We need to wear clothes that will not stay sopping wet like cotton does.

Protecting our head and neck are also important because a significant amount of heat can be lost if the head, ears and face are not covered.

We have to be especially careful to cover our fingers, nose, ears and toes because they are the most vulnerable to frostbite.

Skin care
Cracking, chaffing, dry patches, and itchiness — all are unpleasant symptoms of dry and irritated skin that often comes with winter. As temperatures drop, the wind howls, and humidity levels hit an all-year low, and our skin requires extra attention and care to stay healthy. To be sure you are effectively treating and protecting your skin during the harsh winter season, the following skin care tips may be helpful:

Create a barrier with moisturisers: When applying lotions and cremes, you are creating a barrier to protect your skin against dryness. This barrier allows time for hydration and healing to occur from the inside. For best results, regularly apply these immediately following a bath or shower, when the skin is still moist.

Take shorter, cooler showers: Despite how soothing a long, hot shower feels when it is chilly outside, the steam and heat can do skin more harm than good by drawing out moisture that is on the skin and causing dryness. Instead, keep the water temperature comfortably warm and take shorter showers.

Avoid harsh soaps and cleansers: Pay special attention when picking your soap, as certain seemingly-mild cleansers actually contain chemicals that strip water from the skin. Generally, products containing preservatives, fragrances, and lye are harsher and more irritating to the skin. Instead, look for products that contain glycerin which maintains moisture.

And here is a tip for your lips — always wears some form of lip gloss or chapstick to wet your lips.

For your hair
Scalp itchiness, static, dry hair — they are common issues for people in this season.

According to experts, hot oil treatment can help a lot in this regard. Depending on how dry your hair and scalp are, you can use them once a week to once a month. It is also recommended not to wash hair as often, as that contributes to dryness.

And to fight static, consider using a more protein-based conditioner, which will be heavier. To help you choose one, consult with the hair specialists or dermatologists.

Winter injuries
Existing conditions can also be affected by the cold weather. It is important for people with asthma or chronic bronchitis to be very careful specially when during physical exertion in the cold. Cold air can be a significant trigger for those with exercise-induced asthma and they need to prepare for that by having their inhaler, as well as a mask or scarf to warm cold air before breathing it in.

We often forget to protect us properly from the increased intensity of sunlight in winter. Application proper sunscreen on a bright, sunny day can save us from getting sunburn. Sunglasses or goggles also help protect the eyes from the glare of the snow.

Water intake
Just because you are not as thirsty or sweating as much does not mean fluid is not being lost. It is a big problem with the cold because when it is hot, you sweat and understand that you need to replace your fluids. You are not sweating as much, but you still are losing fluids the same as if you were exercising in the summer time. Hydrating beforehand with 8 to 10 glasses of fluid helps a lot and you should also be hydrating during activities no matter what your thirst mechanism is telling you.

Beating the winter blues
Cold is around and people are cooped up in home isolating them more and they are more inclined to stay in. The shorter days and colder temperatures may make you feel blue in the winter, a disease called Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). The disorder affects people of all ages and races, and the severity of symptoms can vary from person to person. SAD may require medication for some, but for others, a simple change in food may better their mood. Treatments can range from things as simple as taking a walk and opening the blinds during the day something more complex like light therapy and group psychotherapy. Doctors say the easiest thing you can do is be in touch with others, and yourself and your feelings.
Ordinarily, dry skin (xerosis) is not serious, but it can be uncomfortable and unsightly, turning plump cells into shriveled ones and creating fine lines and wrinkles.

Serious dry skin conditions — an inherited group of disorders called ichthyosis — can sometimes be disfiguring, causing psychological distress. Fortunately, most dry skin results from environmental factors that can be wholly or partially controlled.

These include exposure to hot or cold weather with low humidity levels and excessive bathing. Chronic or severe dry skin problems may require a dermatologist’s evaluation. But first you can do a lot on your own to improve your skin, including using moisturisers, bathing less and avoiding harsh, drying soaps.

Dry skin is often just a temporary problem — one you experience only in winter, for example — but it may be a lifelong concern. And although skin is often driest on your arms, lower legs and the sides of your abdomen, this pattern can vary considerably from person to person.

Signs and symptoms of dry skin depend on your age, your health status, your locale, the amount of time you spend outdoors, and the cause of the problem.

If you have dry skin, you are likely to experience one or more of the following:

* A feeling of skin tightness, especially after showering, bathing or swimming

* Skin that appears shrunken or dehydrated

* Skin that feels and looks rough rather than smooth

* Itching (pruritus) that sometimes may be intense

* Slight to severe flaking, scaling or peeling

* Fine lines or cracks

* Redness

* Deep fissures that may bleed in severe cases

When to see a doctor
Most cases of dry skin respond well to lifestyle and home remedies. See your doctor if:

* Your skin does not improve in spite of your best efforts

* Dry skin is accompanied by redness

* Dryness and itching interfere with sleeping

* You have open sores or infections from scratching

* You have large areas of scaling or peeling skin

Though most cases of dry skin are caused by environmental exposures, certain diseases also can significantly alter the function and appearance of your skin. Potential causes of dry skin include weather, central heating and air conditioning, hot baths and showers, harsh soaps and detergents, sun exposure, Psoriasis, thyroid disorders etc.

Dry skin that is not cared for can lead to diseases like Atopic dermatitis (eczema), Folliculitis and Cellulitis.

Treatments and drugs
In most cases, dry skin problems respond well to home and lifestyle measures, such as using moisturisers and avoiding long, hot showers and baths.

If home lifestyle and remedies do not work well or your condition is serious, you may consult a dermatologist to get the appropriate treatment.

Lifestyle and home remedies
Although it may not be possible to achieve flawless skin, the following measures can help keep your skin moist and healthy:

* Moisturise your skin. Moisturisers provide a seal over your skin to keep water from escaping. Thicker moisturisers work best. You may also want to use cosmetics that contain moisturisers.

If your skin is extremely dry, you may want to apply an oil, such as baby oil, while your skin is still moist. Oil has more staying power than moisturisers do and prevents the evaporation of water from the surface of your skin.

* Use warm water and limit bath time. Hot water and long showers or baths remove oils from your skin. Limit your bath or shower time to about 15 minutes or less, and use warm, rather than hot, water.

* Avoid harsh, drying soaps. If you have dry skin, it is best to use cleansing creams or gentle skin cleansers and bath or shower gels with added moisturisers. Choose mild soaps that have added oils and fats.

Avoid deodorant and antibacterial detergents, which are especially harsh. You might want to experiment with several brands until you find one that works particularly well for you. A good rule of thumb is that your skin should feel soft and smooth after cleansing, never tight or dry.

* Apply moisturisers immediately after bathing. After washing or bathing, gently pat or blot your skin dry with a towel so that some moisture remains on the skin. Immediately moisturise your skin with an oil or cream to help trap water in the surface cells.

* Use a humidifier. Hot, dry indoor air can parch sensitive skin and worsen itching and flaking. A portable home humidifier or one attached to your furnace adds moisture to the air inside your home. Portable humidifiers come in many varieties. Choose one that meets your budget and any special needs. And be sure to keep your humidifier clean to ward off bacteria and fungi.

* Choose fabrics that are kind to your skin. Natural fibers such as cotton and silk allow your skin to breathe. But wool, although it certainly qualifies as natural, can irritate even normal skin. When you wash your clothes, try to use detergents without dyes or perfumes, both of which can irritate your skin.

If dry skin causes itching, apply cool compresses to the area. To reduce inflammation, use a nonprescription hydrocortisone cream or ointment, containing at least 1 percent hydrocortisone.

If these measures do not relieve your symptoms or if your symptoms worsen, see your doctor or consult a dermatologist.
Although osteoarthritis (OA) can affect any joint but knee is most commonly affected. Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the five leading causes of disability among elderly specially women.

It develops when the cartilage (smooth, slippery, fibrous connective tissue which acts as a protective cushion between bones) around the knee joint begins to deteriorate or is lost. As the cartilage is lost, the joint space between the bones narrows and this is an early symptom of osteoarthritis of the knee that can easily be seen on X-rays. It usually occurs in knees that have experienced trauma, infection, or injury. Over a period of years, the joint slowly changes. In severe cases, when the articular cartilage is gone, the thickened bone ends rub against each other and wear away. This result in a deformity of the joint and normal activity becomes painful and difficult.

Dr Chia Shi Lu, Consultant Orthopaedic surgeon of Singapore General Hospital has shared his insights with Star Health on osteoarthritis and latest options for preventing and treating knee pain.

Star Health (SH): What are the causes of osteoarthritis in knee joint?

Dr Chia Shi Lu: The exact causes of osteoarthritis are unknown; however there are a number of factors that are commonly associated with the onset of the disease. Such as history of acute injury to the medial knee for example, meniscal or ligament trauma, prolonged and excessive use of the knee joint, previous fracture at that site of the knee, obesity, genetic factors etc. It does affect other joints such as the hip as well but Asians are more prone to knee osteoarthritis because of the common “squatting habit” in the toilets, in contrast with western patients who have hip damage more.

SH: Who is most vulnerable?

Dr Lu: Osteoarthritis of the knee is common in people over 50 years of age, in particular in women. Elderly women with medical problems like obesity or overweight, ageing, with a family history of arthritis could make them more vulnerable. It can affect either one or both sides of the knee joint however it occurs more commonly on the inner aspect of the knee. It is common in individuals who play intense physical sports, such as football. Previous injury to the knee is a strong indicator for development of osteoarthritis in the future.

SH: How many people need surgery for this?

Dr Lu: Most people with osteoarthritis will not need surgery. Surgery is a possibility for those with severely damaged joints who have trouble walking. Surgery may involve joint replacement in which the rough worn surfaces of the joint are replaced with smooth-surfaced metal and plastic pieces. The most common surgery now is knee arthroplasty where the damaged parts are removed and replaced by an artificial joint (prosthesis). The prosthesis is made up of metal (titanium or stainless steel) and special high-grade plastic components (polyethylene) allowing the joint to function normally.

SH: What is your advice for the readers to protect their knees?

Dr Lu: To strengthen your legs and knees, do this lunge exercise, down and up, with your body weight evenly between the front and back leg. Do not lean forward or back. Bend both knees to dip straight down, and come up again, gently, at least 10 times. Use good bending, shown in the right hand drawing above. Done properly, it should feel like exercise for the thighs and hips, not pain in the knees.

Avoid squatting on the balls of your feet with your heels up. Instead, to sit in a full squat, whether to rest, to do chores, or to go to the bathroom wherever there is no commode toilet, keep your heels on the floor. This is a customary sitting posture in much of the world. This reduces pressure on the knees and is a great stretch for your. Keep your knees over your feet, not drooping inward.

When going up stairs, keep your weight back toward the heel of the foot that is stepping up. Most people do not step this way because their leg muscles are too weak. They throw their weight forward, stepping up onto the toe. This transmits body weight onto the knee joint in a vicious cycle of weakness and pain. Keep weight back and knee pain will disappear.
Dr Rubaiul MurshedWater for good health is an idea that goes back centuries. It is an old belief that an average person should drink at least ’8 glasses of water’ a day.

A lot of people believe that drinking water throughout the day can cure many diseases. But the ’8 glasses of water’ per day is just a rule of thumb, not an absolute standard.

Some people force themselves to drink water throughout the day and facing some small problems as well.

According to some kidney experts of the Pennsylvania University, drinking increased amount of water throughout the day is not beneficial for health. Moreover, they said (Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, April 2008), “since water is cleared from the gastrointestinal tract very quickly, it is likely that people who try to diet by not changing their food consumption and just drinking water, will be hungry between meals”.

There has yet to be a study that compares two groups of people and weight loss through water consumption.

In general, to remain healthy one need to drink enough water to replace the amount we lose daily through excretion, perspiration and other body functions. But that amount can vary from person to person. Different things are important like surrounding weather, physical condition and one’s activity level.

In fact, total water intake includes water in other beverages, and the water in food. But how do we know whether we are drinking enough water or not? Some experts say, “If you are not thirsty, your fluid intake is probably ok.” That is why marathon runners and bikers all need to recognise the signs of dehydration.

The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that athletes drink 16 ounces of fluids a couple of hours before starting sports practice. And certainly people in hot or in dry climates have increased need for water. They need to understand the importance of dehydration.

A German physician, Wilhelm Hufeland (1764-1836), who practiced natural medicine and vitalism, was one of the early promoters of ’8-10 glasses of water’ a day. He and some other practitioners encouraged their followers to drink lots of water for curative properties and to flush out toxins and impurities. He wrote, “fresh spring or mineral water, was the best drink and an excellent means of prolonging life.” He also added, “Many special curative properties were attributed to fresh, cold water – which was a fortifier of the stomach and nerves.”

Drinking 8 glasses water was rarely questioned until Dr. Valtin’s important investigation in 2002. He tries to find any scientific justification for drinking so much water. Dr. Valtin conducted a 10-month review of the scientific literature and historic documents and interviewed many medical experts. He also tried to uncover a definitive science-based origin for the above conventional recommendation.

Than again, it does not mean that we do not need to drink water. Water is important to maintain a healthy body.

Our body is estimated to be about 60 to 70 percent water. Water transports oxygen to your cells, removes waste, and protects our joints and organs. Blood is mostly water, and our muscles, lungs and brain also contain a lot of water. Our body needs water to regulate body temperature and to provide the means for nutrients to travel to all our organs.

Anyhow, these views about water have certainly helped the plastic bottled water industries. But remember, bottled water available in our local markets is mostly purified waters. They are not mineral waters. And clearly, we need better sources of information about this bottled water as well.
Many of us use various model's China, Nokia and Android mobile phone but didn't know the secret code that's why we have to suffer a lot. Hope from now we can reduce some problem regarding this problem.

Secret code of China Phone.

1. LCD contrast: *#369#
2. Software version:*#800#
3. Software version:*#900#
4.Set default language: *# 0000#
5. Default user code: 1122, 3344, 1234, 5678
6.Enable COM port: *#110*01#->Device ->Set UART ->PS Config ->UART1/115200 KAJAL
7.Engineer mode: *#110*01#
8.Restore factory settings: *#987*99#
9.Factory mode: *#987#

Secret code of Nokia phone.

1. **61*number# Turn on \"No Reply \"
2. **67*number# Turn on \"On Busy\
3. *#06# checking the IMEI*#7780# reset to factory settings
4. *#67705646# clear the LCD display
5. *#30# Lets you see the private number.
6. *#43# \"Call Waiting\"
7. *# 61# \"On No Reply\"
8. *#0000# software version.
9. *#2820# Bluetooth device address.
10. *#746025625# Sim clock allowed status.
11. \"*#67#\"On Busy Calls
12. \"*#67705646# Removes operator logo
13. *#7328748263373738# resets security code.
14. *# 2640# Displays security code in use.
15. *#62#\"DivertIf Unreachable (no service)
16. *#73# Reset phone timers and game scores.
17. *# 7760# Manufactures code
18. **21*number# Turn on \"All Calls \"

Secret code of Android phone.

  1. Android Phone Information: (a) Just Dial *#*#4636#*#* (b) You can use this code to get some information about your phone and battery. (c) It shows phone information, Battery information, Battery history, & Usage statistics.
2.  Shows Wi-Fi MAC address: (a) Just Dial *#*#232338#*#*
3. PDA, Phone, CSC, Build Time, Change list number: (a) Just Dial*#*#44336#*#*
4. RAM version: (a) Just Dial *#*#3264#*#*
5. Android Phone Reset: (a) JustDial
6. Bluetooth test: (a) Just Dial*#*#232331#*#*
7. Touch screen test: (a) Just Dial *#*#2664#*#*
8. LCD test: (a) Just Dial*#*#0*#*#*
9. Vibration & BackLight test: (a) Just Dial *#*#0842#*#*
10. Android Phone Factory Format: (a) Just Dial *2767*3855# . (b) This code is used for factory format, which will delete all files and settings, including the internal memory storage. It’ll also reinstall the firmware. (c) You can use this code to reset your Android phone back to factory data. (d) It’ll remove following things: Google account settings stored in your phone, System and application data and settings, Downloaded applications.
11. Proximity sensor test: (a) Just Dial *#*#0588#*#*
12. Android Phone GTalk lanuch: (a) Just Dial *#*#8255#*#*
13. Shows Bluetooth address: (a) Just Dial *#*#232337#*# *#*#7780#*#*
14. Android Phone Camera Information: (a) Just Dial *#*# 34971539#*#* (b) You can use this code to get information about the camera. (c) It shows following 4 menus. (d) Update camera firmware in image, Update camera firmware in SD card, Get camera firmware version and Get firmware update count. (e) WARNING: Never use the first option (Update camera firmware in image) otherwise your camera will stop working and you’ll need to take your phone to service center to reinstall camera firmware
15. Android Phone Backup: (a) Just Dial *#*#273283*255* ­663282*#*#*
(b) This code opens a file copy screen where you can backup your media files
16. Android Phone Service mode:(a) Just Dial *#*#197328640#* ­#* (b) You can use this code to enter into Service mode (c) You can run various tests and change settings in the service mode.
17. Touch screen version: (a) Just Dial *#*#2663#*#*

If your knee is severely damaged by arthritis or injury, it may be hard for you to perform simple activities such as walking or climbing stairs. You may even begin to feel pain while you are sitting or lying down.

If medications, changing your activity level and using walking supports are no longer helpful, you may want to consider total knee replacement surgery. By resurfacing the damaged and worn surfaces of the knee can relieve pain, correct leg deformity and help resume normal activities.

Is total knee replacement for you?
Whether to have total knee replacement surgery should be a cooperative decision made by you, your family, your family physician and your orthopaedic surgeon. Alternatives to traditional total knee replacement surgery that your orthopaedic surgeon may discuss with you include activity modification, weight reduction if you are obese or arthroscopic joint lavage.

Reasons that you may benefit from total knee replacement commonly include:

* Severe knee pain that limits your everyday activities, including walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. You may find it hard to walk more than a few blocks without significant pain and you may need to use a cane or walker

* Moderate or severe knee pain while resting, either day or night

* Chronic knee inflammation and swelling that does not improve with rest or medications

* Knee deformity: a bowing in or out of your knee

* Knee stiffness: inability to bend and straighten your knee

* Failure to obtain pain relief from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These medications, including aspirin and ibuprofen, often are most effective in the early stages of arthritis. Their effectiveness in controlling knee pain varies greatly from person to person. These drugs may become less effective for patients with severe arthritis

* Inability to tolerate or complications from pain medications

* Failure to substantially improve with other treatments such as cortisone injections, physical therapy, or other surgeries

Most patients who undergo total knee replacement are age 60 to 80, but orthopaedic surgeons evaluate patients individually. Recommendations for surgery are based on a patient’s pain and disability, not age. Total knee replacements have been performed successfully at all ages, from the young teenager with juvenile arthritis to the elderly patient with degenerative arthritis.

Realistic expectations about knee replacement surgery
More than 90 percent of individuals who undergo total knee replacement experience a dramatic reduction of knee pain and a significant improvement in the ability to perform common activities of daily living. But total knee replacement will not make you a super-athlete or allow you to do more than you could before you developed arthritis. You have to make sure certain things after surgery if you want to get full benefits:

* Participate in regular light exercise programs to maintain proper strength and mobility of your new knee

* Take special precautions to avoid falls and injuries. Individuals who have undergone total knee replacement surgery and experience a fracture may require more surgery.

The complication rate following total knee replacement is low. Serious complications, such as a knee joint infection, occur in fewer than 2 percent of patients. Total knee replacement done in a proper set up with good Operation theatre minimises infection rate to negligible. Major medical complications such as heart attack or stroke occur even less frequently. Chronic illnesses may increase the potential for complications. Although uncommon, when these complications occur, they can prolong or limit full recovery. Blood clots in the leg veins are the most common complication of knee replacement surgery. Your orthopaedic surgeon will outline a prevention program, which may include periodic elevation of your legs, lower leg exercises to increase circulation, support stockings, and medication to thin your blood.

Although implant designs and materials as well as surgical techniques have been optimised, wear of the bearing surfaces or loosening of the components may occur. Additionally, although an average of 115° of motion is generally anticipated after surgery, scarring of the knee can occasionally occur, and motion may be more limited, particularly in patients with limited motion before surgery. You are recommended to discuss your concerns thoroughly with your orthopaedic surgeon prior to surgery.

Total Knee Replacement surgery is the only solution for Advanced Osteoarthritis and makes the patient enjoy life in a disease free manner and improves their quality of life in day to day activities.
Irrespective of gender and age, everyone has the equal right to see the beauty of this world. But access to eye care services for women and girls is not equal to that of men and boys. Only 35 percent of eye care services are received by women and girls who are blind and remaining 65 percent services are received by their male counterparts.

Experts identified gender discrimination, customary social attitude, lack of women empowerment, lack of education and awareness, fissure in national policy for eye health are the barriers to equal access to eye care services.

Nearly two-thirds of blind people worldwide are women and girls. Less access to eye care services than men is one important fact behind the huge number of blind women and girls. Moreover, certain eye conditions like trachoma and cataract affect women more than men contributing the rising number.

The theme of World Sight Day 2009 that was being observed on October 8 was “Gender and eye health — equal access to care”. It was dedicated to ensure gender equality in the access of eye care services, which is unfortunately not the case in Bangladesh.

There is urgent need to step up focus on women and girls who unnecessarily have already become blind or becoming blind where simple interventions can prevent blindness and help them get back their precious sight.

Women and girls face the discrimination in receiving proper eye care services due to certain factors that should be eliminated.

“We have common social attitude that women should always get less priority not only in getting eye care but also in all social services. Male people of the family hold the decision making power and they are reluctant to bring women and girls under eye care services as they are not earning members of the families”, said renowned ophthalmologist Dr M A Muhit, Clinical Research Fellow of International Centre of Eye Health, London.

“Women are also not aware of the fact that they have equal right to access eye care as male. Moreover, many women have accepted the condition as their fate; rather they prefer treatment of their husbands or children. But very few of them know that 80 per cent of the blindness can be prevented with early intervention and sight restoring surgery”, Dr Muhit added.

Although female gender are more in number and deprived more, there is no gender analysis or gender sensitive issue in the national plan for eye health in Bangladesh. Health authorities in the national level need to recognise the existing gender differences in access to eye care services. This could be an important step to reducing the disparity in eye care treatment for women.

Dr Muhit opined that the existing programmes to eradicate avoidable blindness and improve eye health in Bangladesh must give emphasis on counselling, education, awareness and empowering women. Along with women, men as they are considered decision makers, must be motivated and make aware about the significance of sight restoring operations or treatment for women to help them get back their sight.

Blind women cannot contribute to the well-being of the family with ease. Motivating men and women together can have the tremendous impact on community mobilisation. With access to timely treatment of women with impaired vision or avoidable blindness can bounce back and lead more fulfilling lives, Dr Muhit suggested.

Women need better access to eye care services. Without ensuring equal access to eye care for them, we cannot meet the target to eradicate avoidable blindness within 2020. Let’s make a cumulative move to reach the goal.